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In pigs, replacement of standard diet with coconut oil modulates the adipose tissue gene expression and fatty acid composition, with minimal effect on serum lipid profile. The ground meat was then diluted with water to an optimum ratio of 1:4, with no pH adjustment. If it's too sweet, add a little more salt. The two oils have been reviewed by Pantzaris and Yusof Basiron (2002). Consider using coconut oil to impart blander-tasting vegetables with more tropical notes, such as green beans or other legumes, or zucchini and other squashes. The coconut oil produced was white with a pleasant odor, with a PV < 1 meq/kg and acid values < 0.6 mg KOH/g oil (McCormick, 2012). Coconut “meat” is the interior of the coconut that is often shredded and sweetened; however, unsweetened varieties may be available. Some coconut oil products are referred to as "virgin" coconut oil. Virgin coconut oil is obtained from the fresh mature kernel by mechanical or natural means with or without the application of heat, which do not lead to alteration of the oil (Asian and Pacific Coconut Community, 2003). It isn’t just a great tasting oil that you can use anywhere. The production of coconut oil has generally exceeded that of palmkernel oil, but the latter has increased along with the production of palm oil. Laura J. Pham, in Industrial Oil Crops, 2016. Interestingly, in mice with stress-induced injury, coconut oil was recently shown to improve lipid profile and restore oxidative stress. The wet process of coconut oil extraction has been gaining in popularity, and studies have been carried out to compare oils extracted by dry and wet processes (Rajamohan and Nevin, 2009). The table showing the types of fatty acid in it is displayed below. As such, coconut oil is popular for use in personal care products. Virgin coconut oil has retained all the nutrients in coconut oil which includes a high content of vitamin E and minerals. Recently, it has been shown that replacing high-PUFA vegetable oils by 75% with coconut oil in the diet of broilers is associated with a reduced fat deposition and increases lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, and total lipase activities, thus affecting favorably lipid profile. The body converts lauric acid into monolaurin, which has antiviral, antibacterial, and antiprotozoa properties. It is synthesized in babies from the lauric acid of mother's milk. A temperature range of 40–50°C and a malaxing time of 60 minutes was optimum. The predominant type is lauric acid (47%), with myristic and palmitic acids present in smaller amounts, which have been shown in research to raise harmful LDL levels. Epidemiological studies also support this. Coconut oil is a common edible oil in certain countries, and there is a controversy regarding its effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease risk. Figure 4.10. While a young coconut at eight to nine months old has only about 18-26% oil content, a mature coconut at 10-13 months has up to 43% oil content. Other potential outcomes have also been described with use of coconut oil. Virgin coconut oil is defined by Codex alimentarius as oil extracted from fresh coconut meat and processed using physical and natural processes (Codex alimentarius, 1999). 4.10B shows the enhancement of oil content in the free oil and emulsified oil layer. Because of the unique qualities of lauric acid (C:12) present, coconut oil is widely used in soaps and cosmetic manufacturing industries. The cereal industry employs coconut oil for ready-to-eat cooked/flavored breakfast foods. More recent research has been carried out to optimize the aqueous extraction process for virgin coconut oil from fresh coconut meat. Using the protease enzyme the oil yields were approximately 75% of total oil available in the fresh coconut flesh. Fig. The major fatty acids of coconut oil are medium-chain fatty acids. In vivo studies on Wistar albino rats prove that VCO samples are better in reducing hypercholesterimia and diabetes. Another frequently used method of extraction to obtain high oil yield is double pressing with either a hydraulic press or expellers (Gopala et al., 2010). In breast cancer patients, virgin coconut oil consumption during chemotherapy helped improve the quality of life and reduced symptoms related to side effects of chemotherapy. Sterols are around 1000 ppm in both oils. Coconut oil is also obtained from extraction of coconut kernel (fresh or copra) using wet milling or dry milling. Lauric acid is known to possess antiviral, antibacterial, and antiprotozoal qualities. The oil can be split into fatty acids and then reesterified and fractionated to produce medium chain compositions, useful in medical and infant formula applications. A third centrifuge separates the fat from the coconut milk to obtain coconut oil and skimmed coconut milk. Of the saturated fatty acids, coconut oil is primarily 44.6% lauric acid, 16.8% myristic acid and 8.2% palmitic acid, although it contains seven different saturated fatty acids in total. After heating, the oil is extracted using either an expeller or a hydraulic press. Effect of megasonic treatments (10 min) on oil yield: (A) shredded coconut meat:water mixture (1:3 ratio) using 600 or 2 MHz transducers (230 W, 60°C–different letters indicate significant difference (P < 0.05) between average values); and (B) extracted coconut milk treated at 2 MHz (230 W, 45°C–asterisks indicate a significant difference (P < 0.05) by paired comparisons) (Juliano and Augustin, 2015). The oil contains close to 12 g of saturated fat per tablespoon. As a result, these mature coconuts are typically harvested for coconut milk production. Coconut oil is unique in its fatty acid composition, containing more than 65% medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs)—commonly defined as fatty acids with chains of 6 to 12 carbon atoms (C6–C12) (Fig. For cooking and toiletry purposes, it is commonly used in the form of filtered coconut oil. Figure 4.9. The major triacylglycerols obtained for the oils were LaLaLa, LaLaM, CLaLa, LaMM … Coconut oil is mostly produced by a solvent extraction process. Studies made on humans living on Pacific Islands, where coconut oil furnishes 30–60% of calories, have shown nearly nonexistent rates of cardiovascular disease, and the inhabitants were healthy and trim. A 1981 study of populations on several Polynesian atolls, where coconut oil was the chief source of calories, reported both groups exhibited positive vascular health. Coconut oil is a fat consisting of about 90% saturated fat. 2). Coconut oil is considered a lauric oil whose fatty acid composition is high in lauric acid (45–50%). The health benefits attributed to coconut oil are controversial. The coconut endosperm is removed and dried to produce the dried coconut meat, also known as copra, and subsequently, solvents are applied to maximize oil extractability. After VCO extraction, the resulting residual material obtained, termed as virgin coconut meal (VCM), has been used to make different traditional Indian sweets (ladoo & burfi) as well as baked goods (biscuit & cake). Coconut oil produced by crushing copra is edible and has been consumed in tropical countries for thousands of years. 4.1.2 The colour shall be characteristic of coconut oil 4.1.3 Chemical Not only will coconut oil help root vegetables caramelize, it will lend its essence to ordinary white or yellow potatoes, or bring sweet potatoes to a new pinnacle of taste. Table 2.6. Fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition of coconut and palmkernel oils. However, in the presence of moisture and lipase, the short chain trigylcerides may undergo hydrolysis, giving rise to soapy flavors. Visit ChemicalBook To find more Coconut oil(8001-31-8) information like chemical properties,Structure,melting point,boiling point,density,molecular formula,molecular weight, physical properties,toxicity information,customs codes. The paper reported the chemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of VCO. Oil processing involves three stages: pretreatment, extraction and postextraction treatments. This gives it a firm texture at cold or room temperatures. (1986) and Tano-Debrah & Ohta (1997) have investigated aqueous extraction of coconut oil with added exogenous enzymes (proteases, amylases, polygalacturonases, cellulases, pectinases or combinations of enzymes) achieving oil yields ranging from 12–80% from fresh or dried coconut meat. Chemical composition: Among the chief constituents, coconut oil also has: It can either be refined or unrefined. Reports indicate that monolaurin is capable of destroying lipid-coated viruses such as HIV, herpes, cytomegalovirus, influenza, various pathological bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes and Helicobactor pylori, and protozoa such as Giardia lamblia. US consumption has held steady at about 1 billion pounds over the past decade. J. Siriphanich, ... S. Tongchitpakdee, in Postharvest Biology and Technology of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits: Cocona to Mango, 2011. This easy digestibility makes it an essential ingredient for many ghee substitutes. But, it still contains a trace amount of them. Randomised trial of coconut oil, olive oil or butter on blood lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors in healthy men and women Affiliations 1 Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, UK. In a 100 gram reference amount, coconut oil supplies 890 Calories. So, a tablespoon of coconut oil contains about 120 calories. This quality makes it suitable for storage without deterioration. Coconut oil is an edible oil obtained from the kernel of harvested mature coconuts of the coconut palm .In recent years this oil has attained superstardom in the health food world. You may think badly about fats, but our body needs it. In wet milling, coconut kernel is disintegrated using a colloidal mill and mixed with a small amount of water before being pressed through the expeller. The digestibility coefficient of coconut oil is higher (with 91.0% assimilable glycerides) than any other fat, including butter, and so it is digested more rapidly than any other fats. 4.8. There was no significant difference in lauric acid content (46.64–48.03%) among VCO samples. Its only monounsaturated fatty acid is oleic acid while its only polyunsaturated fatty acid is linoleic acid. It is mostly composed of lauric acid (C12), a saturated fat that can provide energy as well as contribute to weight gain. 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