The French cavalry comprised Cuirassiers, wearing heavy burnished metal breastplates and crested helmets, Dragoons, largely in green, Hussars, in the conventional uniform worn by this arm across Europe, and Chasseurs à Cheval, dressed as hussars. On the French left, Sebastiani’s Fourth Corps was still coming up. Battle of Talavera de la Reina, Spain, an 1809 battle of the Peninsular War; Battle of Talavera de la Reina (1936), during the Spanish Civil War The Spanish unleashed a terrific volley along their whole line, following which, four Spanish battalions turned and fled the battlefield. Battle of Talavera on 28th July 1809 in the Peninsular War: picture by E. Walker. Although Wellesely's forces were outnumbered, and a sizeable contingent of the Spanish ran away, he had chosen a superb defensive position and was able to beat … The 83rd and the 1st and 2nd Battalions of the KGL suffered casualties of more than half their number. The 48th, 24th, 31st and 45th Regiments formed a line, opening their ranks to allow the retreating regiments through and engaged the advancing French in a duel of volley firing, during which, Colonel Donnellan, commanding the 48th Foot, was mortally wounded. Both light cavalry regiments reformed and continued with their attack, the 1st Hussars being beaten off by the square of the 24th and the 23rd coming to grief in front of the square of the 27th Light or in a punishing fight with Merlin’s Cavalry Division. The French assault, comprising the 24th and the 96th, but not the 9th Light, which was directed along the level ground, fell on Stewart’s Brigade. On October 1808 Sir John Moore took command of the Anglo-Portuguese army. Napoleon exploited the advances in gunnery techniques of the last years of the French Ancien Régime to create his powerful and highly mobile artillery. In a bloody contest the British and Spanish under Wellesley and Cuesta won a tactical victory over the French forces of Victor and Joseph Bonaparte. A discussion took place as to the next move for the French army. The Talavera Battlefield Monument near Talavera in Spain, commemorates the Battle of Talavera, which took place on 27 and 28 July 1809 and was the Duke of Wellington’s – then Sir Arthur Wellesley’s – first major victory of the Peninsular War, part of the Napoleonic Wars. Cuesta, elderly and ill, was deeply suspicious of Wellesley, who he suspected was trying to replace him. It would seem that General Cuesta’s coach driver joined the flight, with the general an unwitting passenger. ~43 Regiments of Provincial Militia 6. Sir Arthur Wellesley: Battle of Talavera on 28th July 1809 in the Peninsular War. The regiments to the right of the 29th were the First Battalion of Detachments and the 48th Regiment of Stewart’s Brigade: then Tilson’s Brigade, flanked by the 2 brigades of King’s German Legion, then Sherbrooke’s Division, with Donkin’s Brigade in the rear. Silver Medal commemorating the Battle of Talavera on 28th July 1809 in the Peninsular War. The pictures on this post were taken by myself, when I visited the battlefields of Wellington’s 1809-12 campaigns in Spain as part of a tour conducted by Ian Fletcher of Ian Fletcher Battlefield Tours. Fortescue reports that the most important feature of the day’s action was that for the first time Victor discovered there were British troops with Cuesta. Venegas’ Spanish army, following Sebastiani, received various conflicting orders from the Supreme Junta in Seville and from Cuesta and halted on the road to Madrid from the south-east, losing contact with Sebastiani. The King’s German Legion battalions arrived in the line late in the evening, after an exhausting day and many soldiers then fell asleep. These troops formed behind the British cavalry brigades of Fane and Anson to the west of the Cerro de Medellin. The 31st Regiment suffered 260 casualties out of a compliment of 730. Events soon compelled Wellesley, who was soon appointed Viscount Wellington, to fall back toward his base in Portugal. With Portugal liberated, Wellington turned his attention to Spain, and planned a joint operation with a Spanish army under General Cuesta. Fortescue states: ‘No praise can be too high for the Twenty-ninth, which practically defeated all three battalions of the French 9th single-handed, and thus decisively established the superiority of the British troops over their enemy.’. Units labeled Cazadores Regiment are regular light infantry. Map of the Main French Attack at the Battle of Talavera on 28th July 1809 in the Peninsular War: map by John Fawkes. Two French generals were killed; Lapisse and van Porbeck. Joseph and his marshals decided to attack and on the morning of 26th July 1809 advanced to Torrijos. The two battalions of Foot Guards suffered 600 casualties out of a compliment of 2,000. Highland regiments wore the kilt with red tunics and black ostrich feather caps. The French army wore a variety of uniforms. There was consequently a significant degree of confusion. After his perverse failure to fight when circumstances were favourable, Cuesta pursued Victor’s army towards Toledo. KGL uniforms mirrored the British. At Torrijos, the French cavalry came up with the Spanish rearguard of Zayas’ infantry division and two regiments of cavalry. British 24th Foot during the Battle of Talavera on 28th July 1809 in the Peninsular War: picture by Richard Simkin, In Fortescue’s words: ‘Thus the contest in the centre came to an end, both sides having suffered appalling losses in one of the stubbornest fights that occurred during the whole course of the war.’. French deserters overnight revealed the plan of attack to Wellesley, who, at dawn, was on the Cerro de Medellin, watching Ruffin’s Divisional columns on the edge of the Portina Brook ravine, waiting to advance and Villatte’s Division on the summit of the Cerro de Cascajal, with 30 guns in battery to their front and Beaumont’s cavalry in support. The Talavera Battalion was named for a Spanish City in Province of Toledo, Spain. The British rifle battalions (60th and 95th Rifles) carried the Baker rifle, a more accurate weapon but slower to fire, and a sword bayonet. As Anson’s regiments advanced, the 23rd Light Dragoons on the right and the 1st Hussars of the KGL on the left, the French infantry regiments formed squares. Infantry units titled Granaderos or Provincial are the standing militia units from the old army. The French cavalry drove the Spanish rearguard 3 miles back to Alcabon, where Alburquerque’s cavalry division advanced to cover its retreat. Many of his battles were won using a combination of the manoeuvrability and fire power of the French guns with the speed of the French columns of infantry, supported by the mass of French cavalry. Joseph was in the rear with the reserve, comprising his Cavalry and Infantry Guard, Dessolle’s infantry brigade and 2 squadrons of Chasseurs a Cheval. History: The Battle of Talavera 1809. 2 guns were also positioned on a northern spur of the Cerro de Medellin. A consequence of the firing in the area was that the grass on the northern slope of the Cerro de Medellin caught fire, the blaze spreading across the plain to the Sierra de Segurilla. 12 Regiments of Light 3. On 25th July 1809, Joseph marched into Vargas, to the north of Toledo, Sebastiani’s Corps reached the city of Toledo, while Victor halted on the River Guararrama, 10 miles west of the city, thereby concentrating the French First Corps, Fourth Corps and Reserve in an army of 46,000 men. Of the French artillery, 30 guns were on the crest of the Cerro de Cascajal, with 30 more on the lower slopes and the rest with the Fourth Corps. Podcast of the Battle of Talavera: The British victory south of Madrid on 28th July 1809 over Joseph Bonaparte, the King imposed on Spain by Napoleon, and his French army in the Peninsular War: John Mackenzie’s Britishbattles.com podcast. 23rd Light Dragoons encounter the ditch at the Battle of Talavera on 28th July 1809 in the Peninsular War. Joseph, on being informed of the actions taken by his subordinates, ordered a general withdrawal and, overnight, the French army crossed the River Alberche, resumed its old position at Cazalegas and the Battle of Talavera came to its bloody end. Once the French infantry were well up the slope, the French guns ceased firing to avoid hitting their own men. The KGL comprised both cavalry and infantry regiments. Talavera, Battle of, Talavera de la Reina, Spain, 1809 Please provide your name, email, and your suggestion so that we can begin assessing any terminology changes. Map of the Talavera battlefield: Battle of Talavera on 27th/28th July 1809: map by John Fawkes. Cuesta refused. Battle of Talavera de la Reina, Spain, an 1809 battle of the Peninsular War; Battle of Talavera de la Reina (1936), during the Spanish Civil War 43rd Regiment collecting the dead after the Battle of Talavera on 28th July 1809 in the Peninsular War: picture by Lady Butler, British order of battle at the Battle of Talavera:Commander-in-Chief: Lieutenant General Sir Arthur Wellesley, commanded by Lieutenant General William Payne1st Brigade: commanded by Brigadier General Henry Fane: 3rd Dragoon Guards and 4th Dragoons, 2nd Brigade: commanded by Brigadier General Stapleton Cotton: 14th and 16th Light Dragoons, 3rd Brigade: commanded by Brigadier General George Anson: 23rd Light Dragoons and 1st Hussars, King’s German Legion, Corporal of First Foot Guards: Battle of Talavera on 28th July 1809 in the Peninsular War, Infantry:1st Division: commanded by Lieutenant General John Sherbrooke1st Brigade: commanded by Brigadier General Henry Campbell: 1st Battalion, Coldstream Guards, 1st/3rd Guards and 1 company 5th/60th Foot, 2nd Brigade: commanded by Brigadier General Alan Cameron: 1st/61st and 2nd/83rd Foot and 1 company 5th/60th Foot, 3rd Brigade: commanded by Brigadier General Ernst, Baron Langwerth: 1st and 2nd Line Battalions and 1st and 2nd Light Battalions, King’s German Legion, 4th Brigade: commanded by Brigadier General Sigismund, Baron Löw: 5th and 7th Line Battalions, King’s German Legion, 2nd Division: commanded by Major General Rowland Hill1st Brigade: commanded by Brigadier General Christopher Tilson: 1st/3rd Buffs, 2nd/48th and 2nd/66th Foot and 1 company 5th/60th Foot, British 5th/60th Rifles: Battle of Talavera on 28th July 1809 in the Peninsular War: picture by Atkinson, 2nd Brigade: commanded by Brigadier General Richard Stewart: 29th and 1st/48th Foot and 1st Battalion Detachments, 3rd Division: commanded by Major General Randoll Mackenzie1st Brigade: commanded by Major General Randoll Mackenzie: 2nd/24th, 2nd/31st and 1st/45th Foot, 2nd Brigade: commanded by Colonel Donkin: 2nd/87th, 1st/88th and 5th/60th Foot, 4th Division: commanded by Brigadier General Alexander Campbell1st Brigade: commanded by Brigadier General Alexander Campbell: 2nd/7th Fusiliers and 2nd/53rd Foot and 1 company 5th/60th Foot, 2nd Brigade: commanded by Colonel James Kemmis: 1st/40th and 97th Foot and 2nd Battalion Detachments and 1 company 5th/60th Foot, Artillery:Lawson’s, Sillery’s and Elliot’s batteriesRettberg’s and Heise’s batteries, British Light Dragoons: Battle of Talavera on 28th July 1809 in the Peninsular War, French order of battle at the Battle of Talavera:Commander in Chief: Joseph Bonaparte, King of SpainChief of Staff: Marshal Jourdan, I Corps: commanded by Marshal Victor1st Division commanded by General Ruffin2nd Division commanded by General Lapisse3rd Division commanded by General Villatte, IV Corps: commanded by General Sebastiani1st Division commanded by General Sebastiani2nd Division commanded by General Valence3rd Division commanded by General Leval, Cavalry Brigade commanded by General Merlin, Madrid Division commanded by General Dessolles. After exchanging volleys with the KGL, the 96th also withdrew. While the French infantry were compelled to stand in square, they were subject to heavy cannon fire by British and Spanish guns and prevented from advancing. are regular units and so is the Carabineros Reales Regiment. The moment was critical for Wellesley’s army. The next battle of the Peninsular War is the Battle of Usagre The Military General Service Medal 1848 was issued to all those serving in the British Army present at specified battles during the period 1793 to 1840, who were still alive in 1847 and applied for the medal. After several of their assaults were bloodily repulsed on the second day, the French retreated toward Madrid leaving the battlefield to the Anglo-Spanish army. Wellesley was concerned about his left flank and wanted Cuesta to detach a substantial force to occupy the passes over the mountains on his left, not wishing to use British troops. British casualties amounted to more than a quarter of their army, while French casualties were less than a sixth of their army. Victor was determined to renew his attack in daylight. British piquets crowded along the Portina Brook, edgily exchanging shots with the French sentries; sometimes firing on their own side. The Battle of Talavera (27–28 July 1809) saw an Imperial French army under King Joseph Bonaparte and Marshal Jean-Baptiste Jourdan attack a combined British and Spanish army led by Sir Arthur Wellesley. During the French attack in the centre, the French guns on the Cerro de Cascajal fired a heavy bombardment on the British troops on the Cerro de Medellin, inflicting severe casualties, particularly on Donkin’s Brigade. In the British Army, Generals Mackenzie and Langwerth were killed and Generals Hill, A. Campbell and H. Campbell wounded. The 7th KGL lost heavily while the 5th was seriously disordered. Fusilier regiments wore bearskin caps. Wellesley’s battalions suffered under 400 casualties from the infantry attack and the initial cannonade, half by Löw’s KGL Brigade. In Spain: The War of Independence As the main battles—Talavera (July 1809) and Vitoria (June 1813)—were fought by Wellington, the guerrillas pinned down French garrisons, intercepted dispatches, and isolated convoys. The British infantry were again subjected to French cannon fire as they climbed back to their positions behind the summit of the Cero de Medellin. Mackenzie’s Division, the British rearguard, crossed the River Alberche and marched to a group of buildings called the Casa de Salinas, some 3 miles short of the line along the Portina Stream. The 23rd, unexpectedly, came up to a stream running across their front. Hill broke free and galloped down the mountainside, leaving his brigade-major shot dead. The French 9th Light continued on up the Cerro and captured the crest, pushing off the piquet from Stewart’s Brigade. The Republicans, attempting to bar the road to Madrid at Talavera de la Reina, were defeated by the professional army of the Nationalists, with heavy casualties on both sides. French casualties are unknown, but it seems likely that the 9th Light suffered heavily. However, Victor insisted on making the attack and Joseph and Jourdan gave way, fearing the consequences if Victor reported the dispute to Napoleon. The British and KGL lost 5,363 men killed, wounded or captured. Ruffin’s regiments were formed in a different order from the previous night’s attack. Talavera, Battle of, Talavera de la Reina, Spain, 1809 Please provide your name, email, and your suggestion so that we can begin assessing any terminology changes. Cuesta’s army arrived in Velada on 21st July 1809, some 12 miles east of Wellesley. Battle of Talavera; the French night attack on 27th July 1809: While Wellesley selected the position from which to resist the French advance, he found himself involved in too many duties to supervise the proper disposal of the British troops along the position he had selected. The Battle of Talavera (27–28 July 1809) was fought just outside the town of Talavera de la Reina, Spain some 120 kilometres (75 mi) southwest of Madrid, during the Peninsular War. Wellesley was consequently unavailable to supervise the disposition of the British regiments along the Portina Brook line. The 1st Hussars were equally brought down by the water course, but were further from the French. After crossing the Portuguese border in two columns, Wellesley’s army marched into Plasencia, 120 miles west of Madrid, on 9th and 10th July 1809. The following units and comma… Reserve of cavalry: 1st Dragoon Division commanded by General Latour-Maubourg2nd Dragoon Division commanded by General MilhaudArtillery: commanded by General Sénarmont82 guns. After several of their assaults were bloodily repulsed on the second day, the French retreated toward Madrid leaving the battlefield to the Anglo-Spanish army. Royal Guard 1. Great collectible Engraving Engraving measures approximately: 10.1 inches high Each additional one ships free in US, Internationally each additional is $0.50. , Marshal of France Claude Perrin Victor, Duke of Belluno, General of Division Horace-Francois-Bastien Sebastiani de La Porta, Don Gregorio Garcia de la Cuesta y Fernández de Celis, José María de la Cueva y de la Cerda, Duke of Albuquerque, Horace-Francois-Bastien Sebastiani de La Porta, Jean-Baptiste Cyrus de Timbrune de Thiembronne, Count of Valence, Marie-Victor-Nicolas de Fay, Marquis de La Tour-Maubourg, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Talavera_order_of_battle&oldid=967797983, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Sillery's Company, RA (six light 6-pounders), Heise's Battery, KGA (six light 6-pounders), Rettberg's Battery, KGA (six heavy 6-pounders), Elliot's Company, RA (six light 6-pounders), Cazadores de Barbastro Regiment, 2nd Battalion, Cazadores de Valencia Regiment, 1st Battalion (Oman: 2nd), Tiradores de Estremadura (Oman: excluded), Lanceros de Andalusia (cavalry) (Oman: excluded), Voluntarios de Castilla Regiment (Oman: excluded), 2nd Provincial de Burgos (Oman: omit 2nd), 2nd Provincial de Guadix (Oman: omit 2nd), Sevilla Regiment, 2nd Battalion (Oman: 3rd), Carabineros Reales Regiment, one squadron, Alcantara Cavalry Regiment Nr. At the same time, French light infantry appeared on the Sierra de Segurilla, to the north of the Cerro de Medellin. On the far side of the brook, Cameron halted his men and re-formed them. Victor withdrew his guns from the Cerro de Cascajal to make way for the infantry and ordered Ruffin to attack the Cerro de Medellin at 9pm. Each infantryman carried a bayonet for hand-to-hand fighting, which fitted the muzzle end of his musket. Coming under fire from the French guns on the Cerro de Cascabal and the light infantry on the Sierra de Segurilla, the light cavalrymen broke from a trot to a canter at an early stage in their advance. The Talavera Battlefield Monument near Talavera in Spain, commemorates the Battle of Talavera, which took place on 27 and 28 July 1809 and was the Duke of Wellington’s – then Sir Arthur Wellesley’s – first major victory of the Peninsular War, part of the Napoleonic Wars. Gate of Talavera: Battle of Talavera on 28th July 1809 in the Peninsular War. By the time Leval’s men reached the main line of Campbell’s Brigade (2nd/7th Fusiliers, 2nd/53rd Foot and 1 company 5th/60th Foot), they were thoroughly disordered by their advance through the broken ground. With the opening of the bombardment, the French light troops rushed forward, followed by the infantry columns. The two French divisions, preceded by a swarm of skirmishers, crossed the Portina Brook and advanced in solid masses against the line of the German brigades of Löw and Langwerth, Cameron and the British Foot Guards. Following this engagement, Wellesley ordered Rettberg’s battery of guns to the top of the Cerro de Medellin and re-positioned the infantry, permitting the 29th to remain on the summit, where it flaunted its colours, the regiment occupying the extreme left of the British line. Battle of Talavera The British victory south of Madrid on 28th July 1809 over Joseph Bonaparte, the King imposed on Spain by Napoleon, and his French army in the Peninsular War Battle of Talavera on 28th July 1809 in the Peninsular War: picture by E. Walker 9. The Battle of Talavera de la Reina was fought on 3 September 1936 in the Spanish Civil War. While the French conscript infantry moved about the battle field in fast moving columns, the British trained to fight in line. Visit our dedicated Podcast page or visit Podbean below. While the total Spanish and British army outnumbered the French by 55,000 to 45,000, the French troops facing the British section of the line numbered 30,000 against 16,500 British and German troops, with a substantially heavier and more numerous artillery. The three defeated battalions of the 9th Light met at the Portina Brook and climbed back to the top of the Cerro de Cascajal, their attack abandoned. 9. The battle honour ‘Talavera’ was awarded to the following British regiments: 3rd Dragoon Guards, 4th Dragoons, 14th Light Dragoons, 16th Light Dragoons, Coldstream Guards, 3rd Guards, 3rd Buffs, 7th Royal Fusiliers, 24th, 29th, 31st, 40th, 45th, 48th, 53rd, 60th, 61st, 66th, 83rd, 87th and 88th Regiments. Talavera may refer to: Battle of Talavera de la Reina Spain, an 1809 battle of the Peninsular War Battle of Talavera de la Reina 1936 during the Spanish Alcazar Add your article Home It was decided that Victor would make a third attempt to take the Cerro de Medellin, while Joseph attacked the Spanish wing. Due to the age and indisposition of General Cuesta, Wellesley became responsible for positioning the Spanish troops along the line from Talavera town to the Paiar de Vergarar. At around 8.30am, the cannonade ceased and officers and soldiers of both sides wandered down to the Portina Brook to drink the muddy water, mingle and gossip. Battle of Talavera on 28th July 1809 in the Peninsular War: picture by JJ Jenkins. Having driven Marshal Soult's French army from Portugal, General Wellesley's 20,000 British troops advanced into Spain to join 33,000 Spanish troops under General Cuesta. A small Spanish and Portuguese force was despatched to the left flank. The French appeared to have broken its centre. At Talavera, an Anglo-Spanish army under Sir Arthur Wellesley combined with a Spanish army under General Cuesta in operations against French-occupied Madrid. The 24th and 96th lost 40 officers and around 1,100 men killed, wounded or captured, most of the wounded being left on the slope leading up to the British position. Donkin’s Brigade was moved onto the Cerro de Medellin, joining the brigades of Stewart and Tilson. Of Ruffin’s 3 regiments, each of 3 battalions, the 24th of the Line was to march around the north of the Cerro de Medellin and attack the British flank, while the 9th Light was to cross the ravine of the Portina Brook and make a frontal assault, with the 96th of the Line crossing the Portina Brook further south and attacking the right flank of the British troops on the Cerro de Medellin. Generals at the Battle of Talavera: Lieutenant General Sir Arthur Wellesley against King Joseph Bonaparte. Ruffin’s division was to advance with all 3 regiments around the north of the Cerro de Medellin, supported by a brigade of Villatte’s Division. Grenadier and Light Company man of the 29th Foot: Battle of Talavera on 28th July 1809 in the Peninsular War: Hamilton Smith. On 17th July 1809, Wellesley’s army left Plasencia, crossed the River Tierar and reached Oropesa on 20th July 1809. Hill was surrounded by French infantrymen, one of whom grabbed his bridle and called on him to surrender. The 23rd lost 207 killed, wounded or missing, with 224 horses lost, from a total strength of 480. The brigades of Stewart and Tilson fell back behind the crest of the Cerro de Medellin, as Rettberg’s battery struggled to return the French cannonade. Cuesta’s army, disorganised by its headlong retreat, reached the River Alberche, the tributary that flows into the River Tagus from the north-east 3 miles to the east of Talavera, during the afternoon of 26th July 1809, where Wellesley, after bringing forward Sherbrooke’s infantry division to cover the Spanish troops, attempted to persuade Cuesta to cross the Alberche to the west bank. 5 (Oman: excluded), 28th Ligne Infantry Regiment, three battalions, 32nd Ligne Infantry Regiment, three battalions, 58th Ligne Infantry Regiment, three battalions, 75th Ligne Infantry Regiment, three battalions, 4th Polish Infantry Regiment, two battalions, Hesse-Darmstadt Infantry Regiment, two battalions, Frankfurt Infantry Regiment, one battalion, 12th Légère Infantry Regiment, three battalions, 51st Ligne Infantry Regiment, three battalions, Chief-of-Staff (actual commander): Marshal of France, This page was last edited on 15 July 2020, at 11:05. Wellesley was informed of the attack and rode forward to take over the situation. The Battle of Talavera de la Reina was fought on 3 September 1936 in the Spanish Civil War. Exploding shells fired by howitzers, yet in their infancy. Podcast of the Battle of Albuera: Marshal Beresford’s hard-fought battle against Marshal Soult on 16 th May 1811 during the Peninsular War, with his army of British, Portuguese and Spanish troops: John Mackenzie’s britishbattles.com podcasts The previous battle in the Peninsular War is the Battle of Fuentes de Oñoro. The battle of Talavera in 1809 was one of the major battles of the Peninsular War and Arthur Wellesley's first victory in Spain itself, following which he was created Viscount Wellington of Talavera and Wellington.
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